# A Comprehensive Guide About The Beta Of A Portfolio

An inherent asset pricing model was used to test the return rate needed for an asset when added to a well-diversified asset. This model measures the asset’s sensitivity to non-diversifying risk (also known as systemic or market risk) but is usually represented by the Beta coefficient and the relationship between the expected return and the theoretical expected return of a risk-free asset. So how to calculate beta of a portfolio? What is the beta of a portfolio comprised of the following securities? Read the following article for more details.

**What Is The Beta Of A Portfolio?**

Source: **hantoniodruchen**

The beta or beta is a measure of the systemic risk of a stock or an entire portfolio. Beta shows how well a stock or portfolio’s volatility is relative to the overall market volatility. The beta coefficient of the crypto market is always equal to 1.

You should note the concept of systemic risk. This type of risk affects almost all stocks in the market, many people know that market risks consist of GDP, interest rates, inflation, war … Also, there is a non-systemic risk.

Non-systematic risk A type of risk that affects only stock or a group of stocks. For example, the falling oil price affects the oil and gas group. Still, it is beneficial for the transportation company and vice versa, or the increase or decrease in profit of enterprise A affects firm A’s stock.

For that reason, if the portfolio holds one stock or ten shares with an equal beta coefficient, it will have the same systemic risk level, but a 10-stock portfolio has an unsystematic level of less risk. So diversification reduces non-systemic risk but not systemic risk.

**How To Calculate Beta Of A Portfolio?**

- Cov (Stock, Market): Cov of the stock’s rate of return and the market’s rate of return.
- Var (Market): variance in the market rate of return.

But rest assured, we don’t need to calculate the beta coefficient for each stock. Most financial websites or stock companies in international markets provide this indicator. However, they often have very different results because they usually take different timelines. However, you can get an approximate result equal to their average, preferably by yourself. (Note: Frequently, financial and securities websites have quite different Beta results).

**To summarize: Beta coefficient of the entire portfolio = Beta average of component stocks’ holding rate.**

Example: Portfolio X has 2 shares: If stock A (beta = 0.8, weight 40% of assets), stock B (beta = 1.5 weight 60% of assets), then Beta of portfolio X is 0.8 X 40% + 1.5 X 60% = 1.22

Beta cash or bank deposit, we get zero. If you use leverage, multiply the beta multiplier according to the proportion of leverage (This is an easy way, When the beta doubles, then the leverage must be reduced by 4 to optimize profit/risk)

**What Is The Significance Of The Beta Coefficient?**

Please always keep in mind the meanings of the following metric.

- Beta = 1, the stock is with systemic risk or volatility equivalent to the market (Vn-Index).
- If Beta> 1, the stock has systemic risk or greater volatility than the market (stocks in real estate, finance …)
- Beta <1 indicates a stock with systemic risk or lower volatility than the market (stocks of pharmaceuticals, essential products, and services).
- If Beta = 0, it is independent of market volatility
- Beta <0 moves in the opposite direction with the market

Most stocks have Beta> 0, but sometimes you see beta indicators <0, which means it moves in the opposite direction of the market. However, do not be rigid about sticking to beta; the increase or decrease depends on many other factors.

**CAPM Capital Asset Pricing Model And Beta Coefficient**

Source: slideserve

**CAPM**: A model that evaluates the expected return of an investment in a stock or portfolio relative to systemic risk (beta) and market return.

**R = Ro + β X (R tt – Ro)**

Inside:

- R: Reasonable expected return
- Ro: Risk-free rate of return
- β: Beta coefficient of stocks and portfolios
- Rtt: The expected rate of return for the whole market, usually in the long term, is around 10%.

**The above formula:** You will see why people say the high risk of profit is increased or, relatively, the higher the risk, the higher the profit requirement. We invest in stocks because we take higher risks to expect higher returns.

**For example:**

**If:**

- Portfolio A has a beta coefficient = 0.5. Portfolio B has a beta coefficient of 2.
- If the yield on a bond, in the US it is Ro = 6%.
- The long term market rate is Rtt = 10%.

**Then:**

- The reasonable expected return of portfolio A will be:

Ra = Ro + beta X (Rtt – Ro) = 6% + 0.5 X (10% – 6%) = 8%

- The reasonable expected return for portfolio B would be:

Rb = Ro + beta X (Rtt – Ro) = 6% + 2 X (10% – 6%) = 14%

**Further:**

**If** in 2020, the S&P 500 index increases by 48%. Portfolio A with Beta = 0.5 will accept the return: 6% + 0.5 X (48% – 6%) = 27%.

**Then** portfolio B with Beta = 2 will accept the return: 6% + 2 X (48% -6%) = 93%.

Because the volatility is too large, this is not necessarily the correct way, but depending on the philosophy and method, such as investing in large, medium, or small-capitalization stocks, growth investment, value investment, and careful analysis manage portfolios that require different reasonable returns. If the portfolio has only Beta = 2, the minimum profitability requirement in 2020 must be 60% – 65% or more, then it makes sense. If the portfolio is at 0.5, it only needs to return 27%.

However, it is only a systemic risk. Other risks are non-systemic. Therefore: When you invest with a higher level of risk, the corresponding reasonable required return must be higher. Non-systematic risk can be mitigated by diversifying and distributing money and stocks. But when you invest in high-risk portfolios, be prepared to lose more and more money mentally, but in return, you have the right to demand and expect a greater return.

**Conclusion**

Above is all the knowledge related to Beta coefficients that you need to know. This article is for informational and educational purposes only. Through this article, we hope you can answer the question, “How to calculate beta of a portfolio?” Finally, wish you all success on your financial investment path. Good luck!

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歷史

六七千年前的先民就開始釣魚。周文王曾和兒子們在靈沼釣魚取樂。戰國時范蠡也愛釣魚，常把所釣之魚供給越王勾踐食用。 二十世紀八十年代，中國大陸的各級釣魚協會成立，釣魚地點也從自然水域向養殖水域過度，所釣之魚則從粗養向細養過度。人數增多、水體污染及濫捕濫撈導致釣魚難度上升。釣魚協會開始與漁民和農民簽訂文件，使更多釣者能夠在養殖水域釣魚，達到了雙贏的目的。 二十世紀九十年代初，來自台灣的懸釣法走紅大陸，各地開始建造標準釣池。 二十世紀末，發達國家的釣者提倡回顧自然，引發新一輪野釣戰，而中國的釣者則更青睞精養魚池。]

工具

一种钓鱼竿机械部分示意图

最基本的钓具包括：鱼竿、鱼线、鱼钩、沉坨（又名沉子）、浮标（又名鱼漂）、鱼饵。]:1其他辅助钓具包括：失手绳、钓箱、线轮、抄网、鱼篓、渔具盒、钓鱼服、钓鱼鞋等。]:1

钓竿一般由玻璃纖維或碳纖維轻而有力的竿状物质製成，钓竿和鱼饵用丝线联接。一般的鱼饵可以是蚯蚓、米饭、蝦子、菜叶、苍蝇、蛆等，现代有专门制作好（多数由自己配置的半成品）的粉製鱼饵出售。鱼饵挂在鱼鉤上，不同的對象鱼有不同的釣組配置。在周围水面撒一些誘餌通常会有較好的集魚效果。

钓具

鱼竿

主条目：鱼竿

钓鱼的鱼竿按照材质包括：传统竹竿、玻璃纤维竿、碳素竿，按照钓法包括：手竿、矶竿、海竿（又名甩竿），按照所钓鱼类包括：溪流小继竿、日鲫竿（又名河内竿）、鲤竿、矶中小物竿。]:6-8

鱼钩

主条目：鱼钩

鱼钩就是垂钓用的钩，主要分为：有倒钩、无倒钩、毛钩。]:14

鱼线

主条目：鱼线

鱼线就是垂钓时绑接鱼竿和鱼钩的线，历史上曾使用蚕丝（远古日本）、发丝（江户时期日本）、马尾（西欧）、二枚贝（地中海）、蛛网丝（夏威夷）、琼麻（东南亚）、尼龙钓线（美国）。]:25

鱼漂

主条目：鱼漂

鱼漂又名浮标，垂钓时栓在鱼线上的能漂浮的东西，主要用于搜集水底情报，查看鱼汛，观察鱼饵存留状态，以及水底水流起伏变化。]:36

鱼饵

主条目：鱼饵

鱼饵分为诱饵和钓饵，是一种用来吸引鱼群和垂钓时使用的物品，钓饵分为荤饵、素饵、拟饵、拉饵。]:170

沉子

主条目：沉子

沉子又名沉坨、铅锤，是一种调节鱼漂的工具。]:45

卷线器

主条目：卷线器

卷线器主要安装在海竿和矶竿上的一种卷线的工具。]:63

连结具

主条目：连结具

连结具是连结鱼线与钓竿、母线与子线的一种连结物，使用最广泛的是连结环。]:55

识鱼

鱼类的视力不如人类，距离、宽度均无法和人类的视力比较，鱼类对水色、绿色比较敏感，鱼类的嗅觉非常灵敏，鱼类的听觉也非常灵敏，钓鲤鱼时，不能在岸上大声谈笑、走动不停，鱼类的思考能力非常弱，鱼类应对周边环境随着气象、水温、水色、潮流、流速、水量的变化而变化，于是便出现了在同一个池塘、水库、湖泊，往日钓鱼收获大，今日少，上午收获大，下午少，晴天大，雨天少等情况。]:114-117淡水钓鱼，中国大陆经常垂钓的鱼类对象是本地鲫鱼、日本鲫、非洲鲫、鲤鱼、游鱼、罗非鱼、黄刺鱼（黄鸭叫）、黄尾、鳊鱼、青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼、鳙鱼，台湾经常垂钓的鱼类对象是本地鲫鱼、日本鲫、吴郭鱼（罗非鱼）、溪哥仔和红猫（粗首马口鱲）、斗鱼、罗汉鱼、苦花、三角姑（河鮠）、竹蒿头（密鱼）。]:117

影响鱼类的6大因素主要是：季节变更、气温高低、水的涨落、风的大小、水的清浊、天气阴晴